The revised ending, mediante which Arthur returns Golagros’s lands, vindicates both Arthur’s pre-eminence and virtue and Golagros’s claims sicuro sovereignty

Con giving his men the opportunity sicuro renounce their ties sicuro him before he vows fealty preciso Gawain, Golagros acknowledges his people’s right esatto political freedom. Con return, his people respond with a heart-warming and, one could argue, equally Scottish medieval trait of loyalty onesto their own royal line ‘for chance that may cheif’ (line 1193).

Conclusion It has been observed that ‘the stories of Wallace and Bruce were more central onesto the Scottish imagination than were the stories of Arthur’.40 The Golagros-poet’s treatment of his Arthurian material seems onesto bear this out. Per ‘scotticizing’ his 38

Malory seems esatto have believed that the Scots were the greatest threat facing the English durante the fifteenth century; mediante direct contrast with English opinion during the reign of Edward I, Malory saw the Scots as neither despicable nor easily conquered

Gillian Rogers, ‘ “Illuminat with lawte, and with lufe lasit”: Gawain gives Arthur a Lesson mediante Magnanimity’, durante Romance Reading on the Book: Essays on Medieval Narrative Presented sicuro Maldwyn Mills, ed. J. Fellows, R. Field, G. Rogers and J. Weiss (Cardiff, 1996), pp. 94–111 (p. 111, note 13). Fergusson, Declaration, p. 9. Elizabeth Walsh, ‘Golagros and Gawane: Per Word for Peace’, per Bryght Lanternis: Essays in the Language and Literature of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland, anche. D. McClure and M. R. G. Spiller (Aberdeen, 1989), pp. 90–103 (p. 92).

And these were their namys: sir Collgrevaunce, sir Mador de la Porte, sir Gyngalyne, sir Mellyot de Logris, sir Petipace of Wynchylse, sir Galleron of Galoway, sir Melyon de la Mountayne, sir Ascamore, sir Gromeresom Erioure, sir Curselalyne, sir Florence, and sir Lovell

French material, he not only aligns it with Scotland’s particular branch of the Advice sicuro Princes tradition, but he transforms his source material’s demonstration of courtesy into verso subtle study of the nature of sovereignty and the practical role of courtesy durante maintaining it, deliberately invoking the stories of Bruce and Wallace and the national sovereignty that they stand for in Scottish eyes. By giving Arthur the curious dual role of exemplary well-advised king and greedy attacker of verso noble independent nation, Golagros satisfies fans of the most anglophobic of the Scottish chronicles, as well as those (and they addirittura people) who prefer their Arthur as a representative of ideal kingship. Given that part of Arthur’s role mediante this text is to represent the English monarchy, we may detect here per faint shadow of the uncomfortable dance of negotiation and compromise performed by Scotland and England throughout this period, resulting in, among other things, the es IV onesto Margaret Tudor mediante 1503. Far from merely translating a French Arthurian romance or tamely following English Arthurian tradition, the author of Golagros and Gawane weaves together international Arthurian tradition with local Scottish interests preciso cover the entire spectrum of Scotland’s uniquely complex reception of Arthurian legend.

When Malory’s Aggravayne and Mordred are recruiting per few good men esatto help them trap Lancelot per the queen’s bedchambers, they find willing allies among one particular group, the Scottish: Than sir Aggravayne and sir Mordred gate esatto them twelve knyghtes and hyd hemselff sopra verso chambir con the castell of Carlyle. So thes twelve knyghtes were with sir Mordred and sir Aggravayne, and all they were of Scotlonde, other ellis of sir Gawaynes kynne, other [well]-wyllers to hys brothir. (1164.8–17)

Malory’s French source leaves most of these knights nameless (and, perhaps coincidentally, alive).1 For Malory, however, naming these knights and associating them with the Scots seems onesto be important; bound onesto Gawain and Aggravayne by ties of blood and friendship, Aggravayne’s twelve Ricerca profilo adventist singles allies divide Arthur’s breviligne through precisely that kind of loyalty, suggesting that ethnic divisions are per greater concern for Malory than they had been for the anonymous author of the French prose Mort Artu. This concern with ethnic division, and particularly with the Scots at Arthur’s capable, colours Malory’s portrayal of per number of traditional characters and events. They were dangerous.